Archaeological evidence has confirmed the earliest known production of wine from fermented grapes during the Late Neolithic or Early Bronze Age in the Caucasus and the northern fringes of the Middle East. An extensive genetic mapping project in 2006 analyzed the lineage of more than 110 modern grape varieties, and narrowed their origins to one region of Georgia. This is consistent with the earliest discovered archaeological remains containing wine-colored pottery pieces around 6000 BC in Georgia, and around 5000 BC in Iran.
Pottery vases in northwestern Iran have been shown to have been treated with turpentine, the flavorings of modern retsina. Around 4500 BC, wine production was transferred to the ancient Greek region of Macedonia, the first wineries involved recovery and crushing processes, and the entire winemaking process was completed. was discovered in 2011 inside the Areni-1 cave in Armenia, dating to around 4100 BC.
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